It will bring you to the Youtube likes and dislikes webpage.
Then just click the “X” button beside the Date, e.g. July 21st.
When you do this first time, Google will pop up a dialog for notice. Then you will find you can delete without any pop ups. So you can quickly delete likes and dislikes by click the “X” button one by one.
If you want to delete all records, just click “Delete All” from the left panel:
Well, for many years, Windows and Linux are two main operating systems which support many old hardware PCs. If you are familiar with the history of Mac OS and iOS, you will find how radical Apple is. Even for Android, one of the largest open source free OS, it would drop old devices very far away very quickly.
Most impressed, my old PC built in 2008 still can install and run Windows 10. Every function is good and experience is very smooth. However, good days have gone.
Display: High definition (720p) display, 9″ or greater monitor, 8 bits per color channel.
Internet connection: Internet connectivity is necessary to perform updates, and to download and use some features.
Windows 11 Home edition requires an Internet connection and a Microsoft Account to complete device setup on first use.
First, we notice that the CPU is x64 only. It actually drops the support for old CPUs. But this is not a main problem because nearly all mainstream CPU running today is x64 compatible.
If you are ready to run x64 OS, you must have at least 4GB RAM, 8GB or 16GB recommended. But this is not a problem either: RAM is usually cheap, especially old DDR3 RAM. You can buy RAM to upgrade.
Then we find GPU should be compatible with DX12. Most recent GPUs, including Core Graphics Cards built in CPU, will be fine. But I’m not sure if it should be native DX12 support or just compatible with DX12. If the requirement is native DX12, I think many old GPUs need to be upgraded. And the laptops which only have old Core Graphics Cards would be dropped totally because they cannot upgrade their GPUs. The only method is to buy a new laptop.
Until now, there is no real challenge for upgrading. But the true trouble is there.
The most important thing here is that Windows 11 needs two things: UEFI and Secure Boot, TPM. These two things are very awful for old PCs because they cannot support them.
UEFI and Secure Boot usually come with motherboards produced around 2010. This means old PCs should change their motherboard. But changing motherboard means change a whole new PC because CPU, RAM and Motherboard are based on the same platform. If you change your motherboard, you change the whole platform. You would buy motherboard, CPU and RAM.
TPM usually comes with two solutions: hardware chips and CPU support.
Most of motherboards doesn’t have hardware chips on them because the chips are very expensive. And also, these motherboards would not build a preserved slot to let you install hardware chips because manufacturers think you will never buy any hardware chips.
CPU support TPM is much easier. However, it requires very latest CPU. That’s why we will find Microsoft’s support CPU list for Windows 11 is radical: 8th generation Intel later and AMD Ryzen 2000 later. I would like to say it’s very insane. But if you want your PC supports TPM, you must have those latest CPUs.
So, the truth is that Microsoft suspends old PCs. They are not allowed to install Windows 11.
But what I want to say is that it shouldn’t be like that. UEFI and TPM should be an optional requirement and they are only secure methods for PC. If you want to have best safe environment, you should have them, or you could still use your PC with new Windows 11. No functions will lose effects. If your PC can run Windows 10 well, it should run Windows 11 well too.
I don’t know why Microsoft chooses this radical policy. It’s weird.
There are three months for launching the new system, maybe Microsoft will change its minds.
The ironic thing is that even Apple is so radical to enforce every Mac device has TPM hardware chip, the Hackintosh is still so popular. Maybe there will be Hackindows in the future to let the device which doesn’t support UEFI, Secure Boot or TPM can install and run Windows 11.
I am glad to see after 250 years, Americans got into the Congress. This is their first time did this.
Why this is the first time?
Because they believe in the Constitution. The believe that the Congressmen will do as the followings and people only do their own things. By that division of labor collaboration, the country will run as well as possible.
But recently they have known that the whole bureaucracy system are corrupted and even the Congress representatives voted by themselves won’t listen to them. When Mitch McConnell stands with the Democrats and prevents the vote fraud challenging. When Mike Pence lied and betrayed them many times, American people get tired of those bullshit.
The power of the Congress are generated under the Constitution and the power of the Constitution are granted by people. Some people says those people who crashed into the Congress are committing treason. But in fact, they are using the power of the Constitution and under the protection of the Constitution.
I need to point out that I condemn those who smashed and broke things in the Congress, some evidences show that they are BLM and Antifa members. Those who just stepped into the Congress peacefully, they should be free judge of crimes.
Sadly, I heard some from the people died due to gunshot when they tried to get into the Congress. One of them is a brave woman once served the US as military. While in the year 1932, Bonus Army also hurt the hearts of the veterans. The dilemma of that time is the same as now.
When we look back to the history of the world, people around the world over periods had once occupied their Congress. Why? Because they know the bureaucracy are corrupted. Because they want their voices to be heard. They want to change something.
After the long term of 250 years, Americans have reached this moment. They find themselves are in a delicate lie and nightmare are falling.
Mike Pence said “Today was a dark day in the history of the United States Capitol.” But as we know, the real darkness is the corrupted bureaucracy, including Mike Pence.
Politicians in Washington DC should consider their future, American people’s future and the world’s future.
Jan 6th is the beginning, not the end. America has a new history to fight against bureaucracy.
Due to this unfair election, many people say that America will be a new South Africa. It sounds like a racist idea but that is not exact because many people misunderstand the real meaning of it.
To be a new South Africa means the tyranny of the majority, especially the anti-wisdom majority. A country may be prosperous before but then the anti-wisdom and corrupted majority seized the regim and then spare the whole country’s source to the majority and then the country will begin to lose vigor. Why? Because due to the bad human characteristics, people would tend to be lazy and want to get food for free.
Sound familiar? Maybe the Americans know the history of Soviet Union very well. And when you try to examine the Democrats’ political ideas and theories, it’s the same.
I don’t think Trump is a savior but he is a real patriot. He doesn’t want to see America falling down. He doesn’t want to see the world falling down. But four years later, what we see is a cruel world surrounded by evils.
Even today I don’t know what will happen to make Trump win the election. I heard that millions of people will appear in the Washington DC on Jan 6th to support Trump and guard the Constitution. I hope they will succeed.
But even Trump win the election, so what?
You see the whole administration system highly corrupted, including the Congress and the Supreme Judge and the Media. The fathers of the US referenced Roman Republic to design the US administration system. However, after nearly 250 years, the system doesn’t work. The Congress representants don’t listen to their voters’ voice. The Supreme Judge loses its individual rights to keep the balance and find out the fraud.
So can you tell me if the president is still Trump, so what?
Once Obama the liar said ‘change has come to America.’ Yes, the America goes into the darkest era.
Rome Republic fell apart into two parts. I think if the chaos cannot be dealt within the US, the US will fall apart into two parts too. Although one half and the other half cannot rule the country together, two parts will be good: a good part and a bad part, that will make sure not the whole country be a bad one.
Due to the US is federalism, it is easy to make things happen. The last resort to keep the remaining civilization. You will never wake up a person who pretends to be asleep. So if it gets tense, just go away, just move. When the first bath of Americans arrived in Plymouth, they have determined their minds. They prayed to God for blessing.
Time is young, but we are not old enough. The civilization of humans is nothing indeed. It’s delicate and easy to be broken.
I love studying history, but the more I know, the more I understand that the history of human is just a joke.
First of all, forget the one who told you using Putty to generate the key, it’s outdated now.
Why? Because in the past, only Linux supports SSH so that Windows should use third party tool to realize SSH remote connection. But now Windows 10 supports native SSH Client, so you must get used to this one and avoid strange errors or wrongs.
Then, let’s see how to generate SSH key by native SSH Client. It’s easy. Open your local terminal (Linux or Windows) and execute:
In fact, though there is many options can be added, I only recommend one:
ssh-keygen -C username
Must be uppercase C and you can change the username to be any name you want to use, but that should be used to log in your Linux Server as its username later. It should be the same as your Linux username.
To get best experience, please considering to use root by default, or you will confront some strange problems related to permissions.
After you execute the command, you just follow the instructions on the screen. If you want not to overwrite the existing key files, change the default directory. If it suggests you to input Phrase, that can be empty, just enter directly.
When done, remember the default directory in the instruction just now? For Windows, you can cd into C:\Users\your_username\.ssh\; for Linux, you can cd into home/username/.ssh/.
Private Keys and Public Keys
Now you can see two files: id_rsa and id_rsa.pub.
pub means public, so its a public key. For the other with no extension, it’s a private key.
Here is the annoying question: where should I put them?
Well, if you look up on the internet and you will find too much information about that but you will be more confused.
Exactly, ssh-keygen is just a tool to generate keys, that’s all. It’s not about how to connect. So whatever you generate on Windows or Linux, Client or Server, that’s fine, don’t care about it. You just use a tool to generate two files.
But then the following question again is: So where should I put them indeed?
Well, maybe there is many theories behind the scene, but let me tell you the simple truth: client stores the private key and server stores the public key.
For example, you have PC A and PC B, you want to use PC A connect to PC B, so you should store the private key on PC A and store the public key on PC B.
But you should always make sure they are in a pair because you may have generated many key pairs before or later.
Why the server should store the public key? In fact, it’s easy to understand. The server will show the public key to anyone, but only allow connecting with who holds the private key. Due to the key stored on the server is public, so we called it public key.
Store Public Keys to the Server
Now that we have known we should upload our public key on the server, let’s do it. If your client is Linux, thats easy, using:
But if you are using Windows, ssh-copy-id should not work. So we need to understand what ssh-copy-id does.
Okay, we find a new file called authorized_keys. Go to your Linux server (use shell, SFTP or GUI), create that authorized_keys file under home/user/.ssh/ and copy the pub file contents (you can open it by VS Code) and paste into the new empty file. Save it.
In case, reboot your Linux server now.
If you are familiar with Linux command line, you can create (touch or nano or vim) a file with filename authorized_keys and paste the text contents of the public key files into it, and then save it.
And now we should care about our path to store the private key. If you generate the keys on Windows directly, you should store it under C:\Users\username\.ssh\. If you generate it on Linux but you want to let it be stored on your Windows, you should download it from the Linux first. How to download it? I think SFTP is the best way. Use your SFTP tool to download it from Linux path home/username/.ssh and then store it under the same path on Windows.
Now we should check what we have done before we go on:
we generate SSH Keys in a pair using ssh-keygen
we store the private key on our client Windows PC (under C:\Users\your_username\.ssh\)
we store the public key on our server Linux PC (under home/username/.ssh/authorized_keys)
VS Code Connects to the Server
Open your VS Code, install SSH extensions in Extension Store. After installation, you will find a new icon on the side bar. Click it.
You can add new connection by “+” button. Follow the instruction on the top popped out dialog. After done, click ⚙ button. It will let you choose the path where SSH key files store. Then you will open a config file.
You can edit something here:
Host will change the UI display on the panel.
Hostname: the IP address or URL of your server.
User: should be the same as ssh-keygen -C username.
Port: the SSH port. Default is 22.
If you are using Virtual Machine like VirtualBox, you need to forward your Virtual Machine port (like 22) to the Host Machine port (like 12345).
IdentityFile: if you don’t add this option, VS Code will use the default ssh path (C:\Users\username\.ssh). But if you have many SSH key files to store in different paths, you should tell VS Code where is that file. On Windows, the “\” should be changed to “\\”.
Edit this file as your condition and save it.
Sometimes, there’s a problem on connecting a server by a forwarded port. You need to use the server real IP directly. You need use “ifconfig” command on your server shell screen. If it doesn’t work, just use apt install net-tools to get it. Type ifconfig, you will see server IP on the shell screen. Use this IP in your vscode config file, and set Port as 22(or delete Port line because the default port is 22).
Before we go, a small thing we need to deal with: go to C:\Users\username\.ssh, you will find a file called known_hosts. Delete it, it will be regenerated itself.
Return your VS Code panel, move your cursor on the server you want to connect, an icon will be shown on the right. Click it and you will begin connection in the new window. Follow the instruction on the top pop out dialog, then everything should be done.
If you want to connect to the server by tools like Putty or Shell…
Remember, you must use the same username as your keys generated, or the server will deny connection. (Error message: Permission denied (publickey))
For example, if we generated the key with username jaylin, and you want to connect to the server by Shell, you must use the command below:
After log in as jaylin, if you want to get root permission, you can use
If your private keys stored in some specific path, you should use command below:
ssh -i /path/id_rsa jaylin@ipaddress
If you still meet strange problems, try to delete the known_hosts file under C:\Users\username\.ssh.