Posted in History, Politics

真正理解“支那”一词背后的文化内涵:东亚正统中国之争

如今,许多中国人听到“支那”一词仍然觉得自己被羞辱,但其实大多数日本人早已不知“支那”为何物。

如果你去问一个中国人为何觉得“支那”一词有侮辱性,他大概率会说这是二战日本侵华期间所使用的词汇,既然中日敌对,便觉得日本用“支那”一词是在蔑视中国。然而,这种说法有一个很大的逻辑缺陷:如果现在有一个敌对国家对中国人一口一个“你们中国”、“你们中国人”,显然,在该语境中,“中国”一词带有了贬义,难道中国人还会抗拒“中国”一词,从此拒称自己为“中国人”吗?

要解决这个疑问,就必须先搞懂“支那”一词的来源,以及日本为什么称呼中国为“支那”。

据日本学者实藤惠秀考证,“支那”一词起源于秦朝,当时外国人称呼秦朝为“Chin”。后“Chin”一词传入印度,印度人根据自己的发音习惯称为“cīna”。而印度人的这种说法,传入欧洲即为“China”或者“Chine”。后佛教文化盛行,该词又从印度传回中国。当时的佛经翻译者、佛学家等在翻译印度梵语的经书和文献时,就把“cīna”统一音译为“支那”,这点可以在众多中国古代文献中得到作证。后世中国人也常以“支那”称中国,比如晚清的梁启超曾以“支那少年”作为自己的笔名。由此可见,“支那”乃“China”一词的正统音译,本身是中性的。

俄罗斯地区(俄罗斯、蒙古国、乌克兰、哈萨克斯坦等)深受与宋朝并存的契丹政权(即辽国)的影响,故俄语地区称呼中国地区为契丹(Китай),称呼中国人为契丹人,这种说法至今仍然是俄语地区的标准用法。从诸多例证看来,俄语地区至今称呼中国为契丹,并非出于传统,而是带有一定的歧视含义。

然而,日本地处东亚,与中国关系紧密,文化等方面互相影响。所以当西域诸国用音译文字称呼中国为“支那”时,掌握了汉字并以汉字书写的日本往往直接采用中国的语言,比如直接写作“唐”、“大唐”、“中国”、“中华”等,并无音译之说。细细考究,这不单单是因为日本掌握了汉字所以才没必要音译,而是这当中实际上存在一种潜规则,即东亚圈特有的一种尊重,或者干脆就是尊卑关系。以正式的汉字来称呼中国,实际上代表对中国的尊崇,对中国作为东亚霸主的敬畏。

但随着晚清国力衰颓,日本在东亚崛起,尤其是甲午海战之后,由中国主导的东亚秩序便荡然无存。此时的日本便开始用“支那”来称呼中国,而拒绝使用“大清”、“中国”、“中华”等。显然,这带有日本对中国的蔑视,不再尊崇中国为东亚的权威。

1871年,中日两国谈判《中日修好条规》,日本方面不同意在条例文本中以“中国”指代清朝,坚持要求只写“大清”。李鸿章极力反对,最终同意汉文条约写作“中国”,日文条约写作“大清”。但是日本代表团在写条约时,依然在汉文条约中以“大清”指代,李鸿章只好作罢。

由上述案例可知,日本随着国力的提升,开始不承认大清为中国。那么谁是中国呢?正是日本自己。当时的日本文献中,日本常常使用“中国”来称呼自己。

说到这里,很多中国人倒是有点转不过弯来:怎么日本也称呼自己为“中国”呢?这说得通吗?

其实,在整个东亚文化圈,但凡接受了儒学的熏陶,便自然有了天下的概念。天下有中国,其统治者为天子,正所谓“天子居中国受天命治天下”。这是一个深入人心的概念,日本自然也不例外。不单单是日本,朝鲜、越南也有这种想法。朝鲜称自己为“小中华”,而越南则称自己为“南朝”,中国则为“北朝”。推而广之,中国周边的国家也有这种概念,比如曾经征服过中国的蒙古、建州女真(满清),还包括和宋朝并存的金朝等。尽管他们本身不是东亚儒家文化,但长期和中国打交道后,耳闻目染,不免移风易俗。

“中国”实际上在大多数时候并不是一个国名,而是一个政治概念,即为天下居中之国,天朝上国的概念就是这么来的。尽管汉人所统治的强盛朝代,如汉、唐等,确实可以豪迈地这样认为,但在衰弱之时,周边国家不免觉得自己才是最有资格统治中国之人,才是真正的天子。当然,中国是一个政治概念,仍然需要有一个地理实体为依托,这便是中原。所以入主中原成为了千百年来的经典主题。比如蒙古人即便想称呼自己为中国,但不拿下中原便不能这样说,在蒙古草原上的中国是说不通的,没有人会认可。

从这个角度来说,甲午战争之后的日本,其性质已经等同于蒙古、满清,意图问鼎中原。日本最终呈现的路线图也的确如此,先吞并朝鲜,以朝鲜为跳板拿下满洲,再以满洲为根据地进犯中原,最终统治中国。

甲午海战之后,日本认为自己有资格是或者已经是中国,但还需要入主中原才能算数,所以日本不愿意称呼清朝为“中国”。称清朝为“大清”而不是“中国”,就好比认为清朝和日本是两个并存的政权,将来日本消灭了清朝,就成为中国之主。非常强有力的证据是,日本方面曾发出如下号召:“绝猜疑之念,察天人之向背,而循天下之大势,唱义中原,纠合壮徒,革命军,以逐满清氏于境外,起真豪杰于草莽而以托大业,然后革稗政,除民害,去虚文而从孔孟政教之旨,务核实而复三代帝王之治。”这实际上就是孙中山所说的“驱逐鞑虏,恢复中华”,但是这话竟然是从日本方面说出来的,只能理解为日本已经认定自己是游离在中原以外的地方割据政权。

以“支那”称呼中国,是日本否定中原现有政权的一个表现。随着时代进入到民国,日本的势力范围从本岛发展到了中原,日本人在中国大量使用“支那”一词,因此“支那”一词的传播更为广泛。另一方面,民国时代的留学生数量极多,大多在日本,因此常常听日本人歧视性地称呼中国人为“支那人”,觉得自己受到了极大的侮辱,因此他们十分抗拒别人用“支那”一词称呼中国。

1930年5月,民国政府通过外交部称,“中国政府中央政治会议鉴于日本政府及其人民以‘支那’一词称呼中国,而日本政府致中国政府的正式公文,亦称中国为‘大支那共和国’,认为‘支那’一词意义极不明显,与现在之中国毫无关系,故敦促外交部须从速要求日本政府,今后称呼中国,英文须写‘National Republic of China’,中文须写‘大中华民国’。倘若日方公文使用‘支那’之类的文字,中国外交部可断然拒绝接受。”不过日本方面直到二战战败后才逐渐弃用“支那”,重新改称“中国”。

固然,二战战败使得日本取代中国称霸亚洲的梦想破灭,但是更重要的是日本在美国的管制之下改弦更张,将目光放在全世界,从而跳脱了东亚正统之争的范畴。不过,不可否认的是,日本确实存在一小部分极右翼势力,仍然对中国虎视眈眈,言必称“支那”。但这样的日本人并不是主流,是非主流。

而今大部分中国人对过去的历史不甚了解,也不知其背后的文化内涵,所以对“支那”一词的理解仍然停留在表面,徒有仇恨,难有进步。更有人认为如今大部分人日本人仍然称中国为“支那”,实乃谬误。

除了极右翼日本人外,一些中国人因为对当今中国有所不满,也重新使用“支那”的说法,皆被打成恨国党和汉奸。然而,这并不是一种全新的发明,早在晚清时期便已有之。

戊戌变法失败后,梁启超流亡日本。到了日本之后,梁启超实地体会到日本脱亚入欧后日新月异的进步,大受震撼。尽管“支那”一词在梁启超逃亡日本之前便已经在中国境内流传使用,但梁启超本人仍然坚持使用“中国”一词。流亡日本之后,梁启超便开始使用“支那”一词。有人认为这只是梁启超入乡随俗,为了融入日本方面的文化而做出的改变,但其实这里面有极大的深意。

日本所习用的汉字、文化、思想等长期被置于中华文化之下,而中国就存在于海的另一边,这让日本无时不刻有一种寄人篱下之感。随着日本国力增强,民族主义日渐兴旺,使用“支那”称呼中国,就使得日本跳脱了中国的范畴,获得了一种更为纯粹的日本民族主义。

此时的梁启超深感变法无法挽救中国,到达日本之后,也有了跳脱中国范畴之外的意识。以“支那”称呼中国,是一种对已有的腐朽的中国体制的否定,梁启超通过对其否定,来重新审视中国,寻找中国的出路。经过一段时间的沉淀,梁启超又开始恢复使用“中国”一词,并写下了不朽的名篇《少年中国说》。在这篇文章中,梁启超以拳拳赤子之心,高举民族主义大旗,呼吁广大青少年之觉醒,以创造一个全新的中国。

除了以梁启超为首的维新党人,以孙中山为首的革命党人也有从“支那”到“中国”的转变,其原理是相同的。以“支那”称满清,盖为排满以求新。待满清推翻之后,便觉世道更替,焕然一新,故以“中国”重新称之。

最为典型的莫过于鲁迅。鲁迅常以第三者的身份冷眼看中国,嬉笑怒骂,皆成文章,“哀其不幸,怒其不争”。

所以,现如今一些中国人使用“支那”一词,也同梁启超、孙中山、鲁迅一样,希望通过对自己已有的身份的否定,来获得一种觉醒。当然,鉴于目前国内民族主义情绪高涨,公开使用这一词汇必然要承担极大的代价,少有人能从更深层次来思考这种意识。实际上,重新寻找身份认同的办法也不仅限于这种方式,因而我们也很难说使用“支那”一词是否愚昧大于进步,是否只是一种情绪的发泄。

Posted in Politics

The Congress occupied: the new history of America to fight against bureaucracy

I am glad to see after 250 years, Americans got into the Congress. This is their first time did this.

Why this is the first time?

Because they believe in the Constitution. The believe that the Congressmen will do as the followings and people only do their own things. By that division of labor collaboration, the country will run as well as possible.

But recently they have known that the whole bureaucracy system are corrupted and even the Congress representatives voted by themselves won’t listen to them. When Mitch McConnell stands with the Democrats and prevents the vote fraud challenging. When Mike Pence lied and betrayed them many times, American people get tired of those bullshit.

The power of the Congress are generated under the Constitution and the power of the Constitution are granted by people. Some people says those people who crashed into the Congress are committing treason. But in fact, they are using the power of the Constitution and under the protection of the Constitution.

I need to point out that I condemn those who smashed and broke things in the Congress, some evidences show that they are BLM and Antifa members. Those who just stepped into the Congress peacefully, they should be free judge of crimes.

Sadly, I heard some from the people died due to gunshot when they tried to get into the Congress. One of them is a brave woman once served the US as military. While in the year 1932, Bonus Army also hurt the hearts of the veterans. The dilemma of that time is the same as now.

When we look back to the history of the world, people around the world over periods had once occupied their Congress. Why? Because they know the bureaucracy are corrupted. Because they want their voices to be heard. They want to change something.

After the long term of 250 years, Americans have reached this moment. They find themselves are in a delicate lie and nightmare are falling.

Mike Pence said “Today was a dark day in the history of the United States Capitol.” But as we know, the real darkness is the corrupted bureaucracy, including Mike Pence.

Politicians in Washington DC should consider their future, American people’s future and the world’s future.

Jan 6th is the beginning, not the end. America has a new history to fight against bureaucracy.

Posted in Politics

Will America to be new South Africa? The real problem is not only that simple.

Due to this unfair election, many people say that America will be a new South Africa. It sounds like a racist idea but that is not exact because many people misunderstand the real meaning of it.

To be a new South Africa means the tyranny of the majority, especially the anti-wisdom majority. A country may be prosperous before but then the anti-wisdom and corrupted majority seized the regim and then spare the whole country’s source to the majority and then the country will begin to lose vigor. Why? Because due to the bad human characteristics, people would tend to be lazy and want to get food for free.

Sound familiar? Maybe the Americans know the history of Soviet Union very well. And when you try to examine the Democrats’ political ideas and theories, it’s the same.

I don’t think Trump is a savior but he is a real patriot. He doesn’t want to see America falling down. He doesn’t want to see the world falling down. But four years later, what we see is a cruel world surrounded by evils.

Even today I don’t know what will happen to make Trump win the election. I heard that millions of people will appear in the Washington DC on Jan 6th to support Trump and guard the Constitution. I hope they will succeed.

But even Trump win the election, so what?

You see the whole administration system highly corrupted, including the Congress and the Supreme Judge and the Media. The fathers of the US referenced Roman Republic to design the US administration system. However, after nearly 250 years, the system doesn’t work. The Congress representants don’t listen to their voters’ voice. The Supreme Judge loses its individual rights to keep the balance and find out the fraud.

So can you tell me if the president is still Trump, so what?

Noting!

Once Obama the liar said ‘change has come to America.’ Yes, the America goes into the darkest era.

Rome Republic fell apart into two parts. I think if the chaos cannot be dealt within the US, the US will fall apart into two parts too. Although one half and the other half cannot rule the country together, two parts will be good: a good part and a bad part, that will make sure not the whole country be a bad one.

Due to the US is federalism, it is easy to make things happen. The last resort to keep the remaining civilization. You will never wake up a person who pretends to be asleep. So if it gets tense, just go away, just move. When the first bath of Americans arrived in Plymouth, they have determined their minds. They prayed to God for blessing.

Time is young, but we are not old enough. The civilization of humans is nothing indeed. It’s delicate and easy to be broken.

I love studying history, but the more I know, the more I understand that the history of human is just a joke.